"According to Koch, consciousness arises within any sufficiently complex, information-processing system. All animals, from humans on down to earthworms, are conscious; even the internet could be. That’s just the way the universe works.
“'The electric charge of an electron doesn’t arise out of more elemental properties. It simply has a charge,” says Koch. “'Likewise, I argue that we live in a universe of space, time, mass, energy, and consciousness arising out of complex systems.'”